As humans we really don't take much time to consider how other creatures see the world. We completely take for granted on how our own eyes turn light and shadow into visual displays for us. Even many people who wear eyeglasses don't give much thought to how this brings out vision back into focus.
Your Dog Sees Everything Different Than You
It is so simple to think that all animals see things as we do. But if you were to get on the animal's level as to proximity to the ground, or height from the ground, any prospective alone would make the world look very different - so it is for the Dog.
Just try getting on all fours, squat way down, and view the world from 4 to 8 inches off the ground. And there is more than visual prospective due to proximity. Canines have different visual abilities with focus, detail, contrast and such. These visual abilities even vary with each breed of dog. For example, the Greyhound is a more visual animal than a bloodhound.
Dogs Have Limited Vision Compared To Us
Dogs can focus on objects if they are near, but it becomes extremely fuzzy for them if the object is closer than about 1 to 2 feet. So they take up that slack with the sense of smell and touch. Dogs simply cannot see up close as well as humans.
What About Color?
Dogs can see color but again it is more limited than humans’ vision ability. The Human can normally see things in a rainbow of colors. The rainbow for people consists of:
Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, and many shades of all these colors
However a Dogs color vision would be like this:
Violet, Indigo, Blue, Yellow, Yellow (repeated intentionally), and Red
Furthermore, Orange, Yellow, and Green all look the exact same to a Dog but a dog can distinguish those colors from Purples, Blues, and Reds.
The color Blue-Green will cause the dog to see white, however, a canine can see the differences between Violet, Indigo, and Blue with competence.
Dogs & Motion
Another factor in a dog's ability to see things is movement. Just like humans, dogs do not see a non-moving hidden critter in a tree very well but if it is moving and at a medium speed he will be at his best. Like playing with a tennis ball that is green and the green grass... No problem.
So Dogs see things different than us but are capable of seeing some things as we do. What dogs excel at is hearing and scenting - so don't expect your dog to see his world the way you see it.